Open Letter

To the Honorable Barack H. Obama, President of the United States, Members of the
United States Congress, Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary of the Department of Health
and Human Services, Linda Douglass, Director of Communications in the Office of
Health Reform and Dr. Francis Collins, Director, National Institutes of Health:

We, the undersigned, vehemently urge Congress and the President of the United States of
America, Barack Obama, to repeal the Dickey Amendment rider language annexed to bill
H.R.3293 and incorporated into Division D of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of
2010 (see below Sec. 509 TITLE V GENERAL PROVISIONS). The Dickey Amendment
first passed by the United States Congress in 1995 and attached to each federal
appropriations bill since continues to be an antiquated obstacle that impedes valuable
scientific research. The rider is annually created as a tactic to pass a controversial
provision which would not pass as its own bill.

The Department of Education Appropriations Act, 2010 also known as H.R. 3293, makes
appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education,
and related agencies for fiscal year 2010. H.R. 3293 was introduced to the House of
Representatives and reported by Committee on July 22, 2009. This bill passed in the
House by roll call vote on July 24, 2009 with 264 Ayes, 153 Nays and 16 Present/Not
Voting. On August 4, 2009 H.R. 3293 was placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under
General Orders. The Senate passed the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010 on
December 13, 2009.



Sec.509. (a) None of the funds made available in this Act may be used for–
(1) the creation of a human embryo or embryos for research purposes; or
(2) research in which a human embryo or embryos are destroyed,
discarded, or knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death greater than
that allowed for research on fetuses in utero under 45 CFR 46.204(b) and
section 498(b) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 289g(b)).

(b) For purposes of this section, the term ‘human embryo or embryos’ includes
any organism, not protected as a human subject under 45 CFR 46 as of the date
of the enactment of this Act, that is derived by fertilization, parthenogenesis,
cloning, or any other means from one or more human gametes or human diploid

Dickey Amendment Restrictions

While the July NIH guidelines permit funding of research on discarded IVF embryos,
they ban funding for study of human embryonic stem cells derived from other methods,
such as embryos created specifically for research. This ban is in line with Dickey-Wicker,
which has been attached as a rider to every federal appropriations bill since 1995.
Castle said this amendment is limiting because it also prohibits work on embryos created
through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), a method of creating cell lines by inserting
the DNA from a somatic cell, such as a skin cell, into an embryo that has had its nucleus
removed. The NIH guidelines also prohibit parthenogenesis, or development of
embryonic cells from an unfertilized egg.

“Obviously I’m opposed to Dickey-Wicker. It does affect SCNT research and
parthenogenesis, and it is very limiting,” Castle said. “Perhaps this is the year we can
prevent it from continuing because we think it’s a restriction as far as research is
concerned.” ( The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. “Castle, DeGette Plan to Reintroduce
Bill on Embryonic Stem Cell Research Funding”, by Jeannie Baumann. Life Sciences
Law & Industry Report,
Volume 3: Number 18 September 25, 2009)

The undersigned are cognizant of the Dickey Amendment funding restriction language in
the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010, voted on then passed by Congress and
incorporated in the National Institutes of Health 2009 Guidelines on Human Stem Cell
Research enumerated below:

National Institutes of Health Guidelines on Human Stem Cell Research:

SUMMARY: The Executive Order states that the Secretary of Health and Human
Services, through the Director of NIH, may support and conduct responsible,
scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell
(hESC) research, to the extent permitted by law.

V. Other Research Not Eligible for NIH Funding

A. NIH funding of the derivation of stem cells from human embryos is
prohibited by the annual appropriations ban on funding of human embryo
research (Section 509, Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, Pub. L. 111-8,
3/11/09), otherwise known as the Dickey Amendment.

B. Research using hESCs derived from other sources, including somatic cell
nuclear transfer, parthenogenesis,
and/or IVF embryos created for research
purposes, is not eligible for NIH funding. (Stem Cell Information The National
Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research National Institutes of Health
Guidelines on Human Stem Cell Research effective date July 7, 2009)

Although these guidelines may appear limiting, they leave room for revision or expansion
if Congress takes steps to repeal the Dickey Amendment. The scope of the Guidelines as
directed by Executive Order 13505 enable the NIH to review and update the Guidelines
periodically, as appropriate. The undersigned urge Congress to lift this prohibition so
such important work can benefit from an infusion of federal dollars.


Parthenogenesis is a process of producing pluripotent stem cells without requiring a
fertilized egg or creating a viable embryo. Using this technology the human stem cell
lines are created from unfertilized human eggs without the transfer of foreign DNA.
Funding for this research is not available through the federal government because of the
Dickey Amendment:

“Restricting U.S. funding to limited types of stem cells will limit opportunities for U.S.
researchers and potentially lead to lost jobs and higher costs for American health care.
Parthenogenetic stem cells are unique models for the study of immune rejection and
DNA expression patterns. Another technology called “SCNT,” excluded under the NIH
draft guidelines and not pursued by ISCO, may also create stem cell lines useful in the
study genetic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. U.S. companies developing
parthenogenesis and SCNT technologies are receiving funding offers from the
governments of Korea, India, and China. Without access to federal funding here in the
U.S., technologies could migrate to other countries. When disease cures are ultimately
developed and sought by the U.S. population, those cost-savings technologies and jobs
will be located outside the U.S.” (International Stem Cell Corporation “International
Stem Cell Corporation provides Comments on National Institutes of Health’s Proposed
Stem Cell Research Guidelines” Press Release, May 19,

Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. was nominated to lead the NIH, the nation’s premiere
biomedical research agency, by President Barack Obama on July 8, 2009. The effective
date of the above mentioned NIH guidelines relating to human embryonic stem cell
research was July 7, 2009.

We, the undersigned, align ourselves with Dr. Francis Collins creating a clear scientific
consensus in favor of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for stem cell research. This
common ground of shared beliefs are substantiated and illustrated from the following
direct assertions attributable to Dr. Collins, Professor Elizabeth Blackburn, Ph.D., D.Sc.
and Dr. Michael West. Federal funds remain prohibited for somatic cell nuclear transfer
technology under the currently constructed NIH guidelines and the Dickey Amendment.

Interview with Ben Wattenberg PBS: Francis Collins, Reconciling God
and Science Pt.2

Where does– do stem cells fit into that?
Stem cells are really not part of genome research, but they’re part of medical
research and they’re controversial so they tend to, sort of, fall in my lap, too.
And– what– what is your view of it? That we ought to– proceed on the research?

DR. FRANCIS COLLINS: But as a scientist– I would say we are currently not
making as much progress as we could if we had access to more of these stem cell
lines. The ones that are currently available for federal funding is a very limited set
and they clearly have flaws that make them hard to use. But you know what? I think
that kind of stem cell research is actually not the part that’s going to be most

The part that’s really showing the most promise is to take a skin cell from you or me
and convince that cell, which has the complete genome, to go back in time and
become capable of making a liver cell or a brain cell or a blood– cell if you need it
to. That reprogramming. That’s called somatic cell nuclear transfer in the current
mode. And yet people still refer to those products as an embryo. Well, there’s no
sperm and egg involved here.

And that’s where I think we’ve really gotten muddled. That’s the distinction between
these various types of biology has been all merkified. And people are beginning to
argue in very irrational ways based on a lack of understanding what the science
says. If we could back off from all of the, sort of, hard edged rhetoric and really say,
okay, what is science teaching us, I suspect that the moral dilemmas are not nearly
as rough as people think they are. (Wattenberg, Ben “Francis Collins, Reconciling
God and Science Pt.2″ Think Tank with Ben Wattenberg,

Religion & Ethics News Weekly by Bob Abernethy

ABERNETHY: Not far behind, says Collins, is the development of drugs for
Alzheimer’s and Lou Gehrig’s disease, asthma and diabetes. Collins is also a strong
supporter of stem cell research, and he thinks there’s a way to do this that, for him,
removes the moral objections to destroying a human embryo. Collins favors what’s called
somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an egg is replaced by the nucleus of, for instance, a cell of skin.

Dr. COLLINS: Now that is very different in my mind, morally, than the union of sperm and egg. We do not in nature see somatic cell nuclear transfer occurring. This is a purely manmade event. And yet somehow we have attached to the product of that kind of
activity the same moral status as the union of sperm and egg. I don’t know quite how we
got there. (Abernethy, Bob “Bob Abernethy’s interview with Dr. Francis Collins,
Director of the Human Genome Project at the National Institutes of Health” Religion &
Ethics News Weekly
, Episode no. 947 July 21, 2006)

DISCOVER Science, Technology and The Future: Health & Medicine/Genetics
Discover Interview: Francis Collins by David Ewing Duncan

You’re a born-again Christian who suggests that therapeutic cloning could be acceptable.
Some other devout people consider it fundamentally immoral. What do you see

Dr. COLLINS: There is a difference between doing research on an embryo that was
generated by sperm and egg coming together, which is the way human beings are created,
versus the very bizarre laboratory phenomenon of taking a nucleus from a skin cell or the
udder cell of a sheep and putting it into an environment that takes it back in time to its
stem cell state. In public discourse, they’re both called embryos. Even though the somatic
cell nuclear transfer approach is a very different biological phenomenon, in many
people’s minds it has been all blurred together. As a result, we’ve really missed out on a
chance for a much more thoughtful, nuanced discussion, and we’re still trying to recover
from that. (Duncan, David Ewing “Discover Interview: Francis Collins” DISCOVER
Science, Technology, and the Future
February 20, 2007) Interview Dr. Francis Collins by Steve Paulson

Geneticists are sometimes accused of “playing God,” especially when it comes to
genetic engineering. And there are various thorny bioethical issues. What’s your
position on stem cell research?

Stem cells have been discussed for 10 years, and yet I fear that much of that discussion
has been more heat than light. First of all, I believe that the product of a sperm and an
egg, which is the first cell that goes on to develop a human being, deserves considerable
moral consequences. This is an entity that ultimately becomes a human. So I would be
opposed to the idea of creating embryos by mixing sperm and eggs together and then
experimenting on the outcome of that, purely to understand research questions. On the
other hand, there are hundreds of thousands of such embryos in freezers at in vitro
fertilization clinics. In the process of in vitro fertilization, you almost invariably end up
with more embryos than you can reimplant safely. The plausibility of those ever being
reimplanted in the future — more than a few of them — is extremely low. Is it more ethical
to leave them in those freezers forever or throw them away? Or is it more ethical to come
up with some sort of use for those embryos that could help people? I think that’s not been
widely discussed.

So your position is that they should be used for research if they already exist and
they’re never going to be used to create a human life?

I think that’s the more ethical stance. And I say this as a private citizen and not as a
representative of the U.S. government, even though I’m employed by the federal
government at the National Institutes of Health. Now let me say, there’s another aspect of
this topic that I think is even more confusing — a different approach which is more
promising medically. It’s this thing called somatic cell nuclear transfer, which is where
you take a cell from a living person — a skin cell, for instance. You take out its nucleus,
which is where the DNA is, and you insert that nucleus into the environment of an egg
cell, which has lost its nucleus. Now think about this. We have a skin cell, and we have
an egg cell with no nucleus. Neither of those would be things that anybody would argue
has moral status. Then you give a zap of electricity and you wait a couple of days. And
that environment convinces that skin cell that it can go back in time and it can become
anything it wants to be. That is an enormously powerful opportunity because the cell
would then be received by that same person who happened to need, say, neurons for their
Parkinson’s disease or pancreas cells for their diabetes without a transplant rejection.

Isn’t this the process that is otherwise known as cloning?

Yeah, it’s called cloning, which is a very unfortunate term because it conjures up the idea
that you’re trying to create a copy of that human being. And at this point, you’re doing
nothing of the sort. You’re trying to create a cell line that could be used to substitute for
something that a person desperately needs. It would only become a cloned person if you
then intentionally decided to take those cells and reimplant them in the uterus of a
recipient woman. And that, obviously, is something that we should not and must not and
probably should legislate against. But until you get to that point, it’s not clear to me that
you’re dealing with something that deserves to be called an embryo or deserves to be
given moral status. (Paulson, Steve “The believer”, Interview Aug. 07, 2006)

From: Francis S. Collins, The Language of God

Dr. COLLINS: “Like virtually everyone else, I am strongly opposed to the idea of
human reproductive cloning. Implanting the product of human somatic cell nuclear
transfer into a uterus is profoundly immoral and ought to be opposed on the strongest
possible grounds. On the other hand, protocols are already being developed to convince a
single cell that has been derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer to be converted into a
cell that senses glucose levels and secretes insulin, without going through any of the other
steps of embryonic and fetal development. If such steps can result in tissue-matched cells
that cure juvenile diabetes, why would that not be a morally acceptable procedure?”
(Francis S. Collins, The Language of God (Free Press), NY, 2006; p. 256)


SCNT-derived stem cells could provide other crucial information, in a way impossible
for excess in-vitro-fertilized-embryo-derived stem cells. Researchers could address, in a
clear and experimentally controlled way, a key unknown issue about the therapeutic
value of stem cell use for regenerative medicine: the immune rejection issue. There are
excellent in vitro investigations that could cast a lot of much needed light on this area,
and could be done only with cells derived from the same genetic background – i.e., using
stem cells from SCNT. Again, this cannot be done with animal models alone, which have
been the only source of information on this topic to date, because we know that animal
models are not complete models for many particular biological questions in humans.
In sum, reliance on excess IVF embryos would severely hobble efforts to gain the
information that is needed to be able to judge the promise of cloning-for-biomedicalresearch.
Further, the use of IVF embryos in no way facilitates the most immediately
promising areas of SCNT research, which involve not tissue transplantation but rather the
development of laboratory tissue that has been grown from somatic cells with known
genetic mutations that are needed for study and for testing of new pharmaceutical
interventions. (Blackburn, Elizabeth “Why a Moratorium on Cloning-For-Biomedical-
Research Is Not the Way to Proceed”, July, 2002)

Michael D. West, Ph.D. Congressional Testimony

In conclusion, nuclear transfer and human embryonic stem cell technology offer novel
pathways to develop lifesaving therapies that will impact the lives of millions suffering
from such diseases as Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, arthritis, heart disease, kidney
failure, spinal cord injury, liver failure, skin burns, blood cell cancers, to name only a
few. The gravity of this issue calls for a compassionate, reasoned, and dispassionate
debate. History will judge us harshly if we as a society fail to recognize and deliberate
carefully upon a medical technology that could so powerfully alleviate the suffering of
our fellow human being. (West, Michael D “Testimony of Michael D. West, Ph.D. before
the Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related
Agencies of the Senate Committee on Appropriations, December 4, 2001″

The country’s leading scientists including Dr. Collins, 2009 Nobel Laureate for
Physiology or Medicine, Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn and Dr. Michael West had their
convictions affirmed concerning the potential for somatic cell nuclear transfer technology
by Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center investigators on March 23, 2008.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Press Release

Research led by investigators at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC)
has shown that therapeutic cloning, also known as somatic-cell nuclear transfer
(SCNT), can be used to treat Parkinson’s disease in mice. For the first time, researchers
showed that therapeutic cloning or SCNT has been successfully used to treat disease in
the same subjects from whom the initial cells were derived. While this current work is
in animals, it could have future implications as this method may be an effective way to
reduce transplant rejection and enhance recovery in other diseases and in other organ
systems. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center “Therapeutic Cloning Treats
Parkinson’s Disease in Mice” Press Release, March 23, 2008)

Furthermore, on May 5, 2006 Bill S.2754, the Alternative Pluripotent Stem Cell
Therapies Act was introduced. Senator Rick Santorum sponsored S.2754 and Senator
Arlen Specter co-sponsored. The overall intent of the bill was to derive human
pluripotent stem cell lines using techniques that do not knowingly harm embryos.

Co-Sponsor Senator Arlen Specter stated on Congressional Record:

Dr. Robert Lanza of Advanced Cell Technologies claims to have derived stem cells
from a single cell extracted from 2-day-old, eight-celled mouse embryos. This single
cell is called a blastomere and its removal from human embryos does not destroy the
original embryo. Scientists know a single cell can be taken from a 2-day-old embryo
without destroying it, because it is routinely done in pre-implantation genetic
diagnosis. (U.S. Congress. Senate. Senator Arlen Specter speaking for the Alternative
Stem Cell Therapies Act. S. Bill 2754, 108th Congress, Section 17. 5 May 2006.
Congressional Record,

Bill S.2754 passed the Senate on July 18, 2006 and failed passage in the House July 18,
2006. The Dickey Amendment federal funding restriction on potentially lifesaving
research continues to act as a legislative blockade. The prohibitive nature of the Dickey
Amendment congressional ban as it relates to federal funding for the most necessary
research is summarized by the scientists below:

“Progress in our understanding of human diseases and the development of effective
treatments for them has come largely from federally funded research, primarily supported
through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The present congressional ban (instituted
in 1994 after an NIH panel established guidelines and oversight that would have allowed
such research) has meant that work on the development of embryonic stem cell lines and
on the use of embryonic cells has been limited to private and for-profit ventures. Not only
are these efforts relatively small in comparison with those funded by NIH, the results are
largely hidden from the general scientific community. Moreover, the benefits are likely to
be available to the public in a very restricted manner, usually based on the ability to pay
whatever price is asked.”(Rowley, Janet D.; Blackburn Elizabeth, Gazziniga, Michael S.
and Foster, Daniel W. “Harmful Moratorium on Stem Cell Research” Science 20 September
2002, Vol. 297 .no. 5589, p. 1957, DOI: 10.1126/science.297.5589.1957)

A strong case can be made that the Dickey Amendment ban on expansion of human
embryonic stem cell research violates the Establishment Clause of the United States
Constitution. Churches and other organizations must adhere to the separation of church
and state as provided for in the First Amendment. Such organizations should not expect
the rest of society will submit to controlling influence by religious groups. Religious
organizations such as Nightlight Christian Adoptions in re JAMES L. SHERLEY, et al v.
KATHLENE SEBELIUS Case No. 1:09-cv-01575-RCL
should not believe that the
government or the courts will assist them in efforts to force their religious doctrines on
others. In Lemon v. Kurtzman, the court applied the three-part test for determining
whether a law impermissibly intrudes on the Establishment Clause: (1) there must be a
secular legislative purpose: (2) its principal or primary effect must be one that neither
advances nor inhibits religion: (3) the law must not foster an excessive government
entanglement with religion. Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971)

The undersigned concludes repeal of the pernicious Dickey Amendment will enable
researchers’ access to unique properties of stem cells that may lead to major medical
breakthroughs that would offer hope to people suffering from cancer, diabetes,
Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), cardiovascular disease, spinal-cord injuries,
Alzheimer’s disease, organ failure and a host of other debilitating diseases. We are
fighting for cures to chronic illness and almost everyone knows somebody with an
incurable disease. That is why the undersigned urges Congress and the President of the
United States of America to repeal the Dickey Amendment because every family has a
loved one at risk and we want the best treatment for them.

Congress and the President of the United States of America must share the same
determination and courage as the nation’s leading scientific minds by removing the long
standing impediment referred to as the Dickey Amendment. The undersigned seek to
expand the scope of discovery by reversing the Dickey Amendment policy thus
increasing the potential for scientific truth. Good health and good sense are two of life’s
greatest blessings. We emphatically ask that our voices be heard:

“Our ignorance in this vitally important area is profound, and the potential for meaningful
medical advances is very high indeed. To realize that potential, we must remove the
current impediments to this critical research. Scientists should become more active in
urging Congress to lift the ban and to establish the proposed, broadly constituted
regulatory board NOW.”

(Rowley, Janet D.; Blackburn Elizabeth; Gazzaniga, Michael S. and Foster, Daniel W. “Harmful Moratorium on Stem Cell Research” Science 20 September
2002, Vol. 297. no. 5589, p. 1957, DOI: 10.1126/science.297.5589.1957)

The views expressed in this letter represent those of the signers acting as individual
citizens. They do not necessarily represent the views of the institutions with which they
are affiliated. All electronic signatures have been verified, confirmed and documented.

Letter Composed by: Mark J. Neuhauser, Attorney-at-Law, Type 1 “insulin dependent” diabetic

Contributor: Bonna W. Neuhauser, RN

**This effort is a heartfelt tribute to all the scientists who have worked tireless
hours in the lab and been put at a competitive disadvantage because of the Dickey
Amendment over the last fourteen years.

Inspirational Contributors: Alliance for Aging Research, Alpha-1 Foundation, ALS
Association, American Academy of Neurology, American Association for Cancer
Research, American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological
Surgeons, American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association, American College of
Neuropsychopharmacology, American Diabetes Association, American Parkinson
Disease Association – Arizona Chapter, American Society for Cell Biology, American
Society for Microbiology, American Society for Neural Therapy and Repair, American
Society for Reproductive Medicine, Americans for Cures Foundation, Association of
American Medical Colleges, Biotechnology Industry Organization, California Institute
for Regenerative Medicine, Californians for Cures, Christopher and Dana Reeve
Foundation, Columbia University Medical Center, Cornell University, CuresNow, Duke
University School of Medicine, FasterCures, Friends of Cancer Research, Genetics
Policy Institute, Hadassah, Harvard University, Hereditary Disease Foundation,
International Cancer Advocacy Network (ICAN), International Society for Stem Cell
Research, Johns Hopkins Institutions, Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
International, The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society, Michigan Citizens for Stem Cell
Research and Cures, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, National Alliance for Eye and
Vision Research, National Association for Biomedical Research, National Health
Council, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, New York Stem Cell Foundation, Packard
Center for ALS Research at Johns Hopkins, Parkinson’s Action Network, Parkinson’s
Disease Foundation, Prevent Cancer Foundation, Quest for the Cure, Research!America,
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer
Research, Society for Women’s Health Research, Stand Among Friends, Stanford
University, Stem Cell Partnering Series, Student Society for Stem Cell Research, Texans
for Advancement of Medical Research, Travis Roy Foundation, Unite 2 Fight Paralysis,
United Spinal Association, University of Minnesota, University of Pittsburgh, University
of Rochester Medical Center, University of Southern California, University of
Wisconsin-Madison, Vanderbilt University and Medical Center, Washington University
in St. Louis, WiCell Research Institute, Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation,
Wisconsin Association for Biomedical Research and Education (CAMR, Coalition for
the Advancement of Medical Research, “Members” Valencia M. (student advocate/prospective
law student), Derek D. (student advocate), Tyler L. (student
advocate/ et al.

Yours Respectfully,

Kyriacos A. Athanasiou, Ph.D., P.E.
University of California Davis
Distinguished Professor
Chair, Department of Biomedical Engineering
Editor-in-Chief, Annals of Biomedical Engineering

Richard Axel, M.D.
Columbia University Medical Center
Department of Neuroscience
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Emmanuel E. Baetge, Ph.D.
Novocell, Inc.
SVP & Chief Scientific Officer
Featured in Forbes Cover Story: “Stem Cells Get Real”

Baruj Benacerraf, M.D.
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Harvard Cancer Center
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1980
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by George H.W. Bush in Biological Sciences) 1990

Juan Dominquez-Bendala, Ph.D.
University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine
Diabetes Research Institute
“The Best Hope for a Cure”
Research Professor of Surgery
Director, Pancreatic Development & Stem Cell Laboratory

Paul Berg, Ph.D.
Stanford University School of Medicine
Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1980
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by Ronald W. Reagan in Biological Sciences) 1983
Scientific Advisory Board, Harvard Stem Cell Institute

Julie Bergman, RN, MSN
The Parkinson’s Institute
Former CPT at US Army

Gunter Blobel, M.D., Ph.D.
Rockefeller University
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1999
President, American Society for Cell Biology 1990

Mario R. Capecchi, Ph.D.
University of Utah School of Medicine
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 2007
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by George W. Bush in Biological Sciences) 2001

Arthur Caplan, Ph.D.
University of Pennsylvania
Chair, Department of Medical Ethics
Director, Center for Bioethics
Person of the Year-2001 from USA Today
One of the Fifty Most Influential People in Health Care by Modern Health Care Magazine
The 10 Most Influential People in Science by Discover Magazine 2008

Thomas R. Cech, Ph.D.
University of Colorado at Boulder
Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1989
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by William J. Clinton in Biological Sciences) 1995

Parminder (Shelley) Chawla, M.D.
Hope Productions, LLC
Author, Hope… In Vitro
Producer & Screenwriter, “HOPE”

Curt I. Civin, M.D.
Founding Director, University of Maryland School of Medicine Center for Stem Cell
Biology and Regenerative Medicine
National Cancer Institute, Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee
The 1999 National Inventor of the Year Award by the Intellectual Property Association
The 2009 Karl Landsteiner Memorial Award by the American Society of Blood Banks

Stanley Cohen, Ph.D.
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1986
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by Ronald W. Reagan in Biological Sciences) 1986

Kenneth Cole
Chairman of the Board
amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research
amfAR Award of Courage 2000

Elias James Corey, Ph.D.
Harvard University
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1990
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by Ronald W. Reagan in Chemistry) 1988

Anne H. Cross, M.D.
Washington University in St. Louis-School of Medicine
Professor of Neurology
Section Head of Neuroimmunology
The Manny and Rosalyn Rosenthal-Dr. L. John Trotter MS Chair in Neuroimmunology
National MS Society Research Advisory Committee
Research Hall of Fame by the National Multiple Sclerosis Society 2006

George Q. Daley, M.D., Ph.D.
Harvard Medical School
Director, Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Children’s Hospital Boston
Samuel E. Lux, IV Professor of Hematology/Oncology
Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
President, International Society for Stem Cell Research (2007-2009)
Executive Committee, Harvard Stem Cell Institute

Sheng Ding, Ph.D.
The Scripps Research Institute
Associate Professor (Co-Scientific Founder Fate Therapeutics)
Prostate Cancer Foundation Challenge Award 2008
Award from Michael J. Fox Foundation 2004
Award from Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation on RBCF Program 2005

John E. Dowling, Ph.D.
Harvard University
Gund Professor of Neurosciences
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
Helen Keller Prize for Vision Research 2000
The Llura Liggett Gund Award (Presented by Foundation Fighting Blindness) 2001

Renato Dulbecco, M.D.
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1975

James R. Eckman, M.D.
Emory University School of Medicine
Departments of Hematology & Oncology and Medicine
Winship Cancer Institute
Director, Georgia Comprehensive Sickle Cell Clinic
Presented with Senate Resolution No. 1385 Highlighting Dedication to Sickle Cell Patient Care

George S. Eisenbarth, M.D., Ph.D.
Executive Director of the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes
Professor Pediatrics, Medicine, and Immunology University of Colorado
The Pasteur-Weizmann/Servier International Prize in Biomedical Research 2006
Banting Award by the American Diabetes Association 2009

Gerald Fischbach, M.D.
The Simons Foundation
Former Director National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 1998-2001
Governor Appointee to Funding Committee of Empire State Stem Cell Board (2007)

Edmond H. Fischer, Ph.D.
University of Washington
Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Mike Fordyce
Craig Hospital
President and CEO
U.S. News & World Report-Top 10 Rehabilitation Hospitals in the Nation
Chief Administrative Officer, Catholic Health Initiatives (1999-2008)
Board of Trustees, National Sports Center for the Disabled

Joseph H. Friedman, M.D.
Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University
Department of Neurology
Director, NeuroHealth Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorder Center
Advisory Board: Eli Lilly, Pfizer & Janssen
Author, Making the Connection Between Brain and Behavior: Coping with Parkinson’s

Douglas Galasko, M.D.
University of California, San Diego
Director, Shiley-Marcos Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center
Professor, Department of Neurosciences
Top 100 Alzheimer’s Disease Investigators in the World by Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease

Joseph G. Gall, Ph.D.
Department of Embryology
Carnegie Institution for Science
Albert Lasker Award for Special Achievement in Medical Science 2006
Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University 2007

John Gearhart, Ph.D.
University of Pennsylvania
James W. Effron University Professor
Director, Institute for Regenerative Medicine

Paul Michael Glaser
Actor & Director
Honorary Chairman, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation
Chairman, Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (1994-2002)

Ashley M. Goss
Founding Board Member, Student Society for Stem Cell Research
University of Pennsylvania (Ph.D. candidate)
Morrisey Lab
Molecular Cardiology Research Center
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology

Laura Grabel, Ph.D.
Wesleyan University, Grabel Lab
Honored by the Connecticut Women’s Hall of Fame 2008
Member of the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering
Co-Principal Investigator, University of Connecticut-Wesleyan Stem Cell Core

Barth A. Green, M.D., FACS
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Professor and Chairman of Neurological Surgery
Chair and Co-Founder (with Nicholas Buoniconti) of Miami Project to Cure Paralysis

Robert C. Griggs, M.D., FAAN
University of Rochester, Department of Neurology
Professor of Neurology, Medicine, Pediatrics, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
President, American Academy of Neurology
Editor-in-Chief Neurology (1997-2006)

Roger Guillemin, M.D.
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1977
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by Gerald R. Ford, Jr. in Biological Sciences) 1976

Michael G. Hadfield, Ph.D.
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Professor of Zoology
Advisory Board, Defend Science

Jeffrey C. Hall, Ph.D.
University of Maine
Professor of Neurogenetics
Gruber Neuroscience Prize 2009

Alberto Hayek, M.D.
University of California San Diego-Pediatric Diabetes Research Center
Professor of Pediatrics
Scientific Director, The Scripps Whittier Institute for Diabetes

Mary J.C. Hendrix, Ph.D.
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Medical Research Institute Council Professor
President and Scientific Director, Children’s Memorial Research Center
Board of Directors, National Cancer Institute
Appointee to the National Institutes of Health Council of Councils

Matthais Von Herrath, M.D.
La Jolla Institute for Immunology
Director, Center for Type 1 Diabetes Research
Council Member for the International Diabetes Society
Grotzky Award from the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation International 2006
Outstanding Scientific (‘Lilly’) Achievement Award by the American Diabetes Association 2008

Dudley R. Herschbach, Ph.D.
Harvard University
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1986
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by George H.W. Bush in Chemistry) 1991

Roald Hoffmann, Ph.D.
Cornell University
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1981
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by Ronald W. Reagan in Chemistry) 1983

Leroy Hood, M.D., Ph.D.
President, Institute for Systems Biology
Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research 1987
Kyoto Prize Laureate in Advanced Technology 2002
Lemelson-MIT Prize for Invention and Innovation 2003
The Heinz Award by the Heinz Family Foundation for Technology, the Economy and
Employment 2005

David H. Hubel, M.D.
Harvard University
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Helen Keller Prize for Vision Research 1996

Louis J. Ignarro, Ph.D.
UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Distinguished Science Award from the American Heart Association 2008

Lanetta Jordan, M.D.
Memorial Regional Hospital
Director, Sickle Cell Services
Chief Medical Officer, Sickle Cell Disease Association of America, Inc.

Timothy J. Kamp, M.D., Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin Medical School
Professor of Medicine and Physiology
Co-Director Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center

Eric R. Kandel, M.D.
Columbia University Medical Center
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 2000
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by Ronald W. Reagan in Biological Sciences) 1988

John Kessler, M.D.
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Davee Professor of Stem Cell Biology
Chairman, Department of Neurology
Director, Northwestern University Stem Cell Institute
PBS, ‘Independent Lens’: Mapping Stem Cell Research-Terra Incognita (2008 Peabody Award)

Rick A. Kittles, Ph.D.
The University of Chicago, Department of Medicine
Associate Professor
Section of Genetic Medicine
Scientific Director and Co-Founder of African Ancestry Inc.
Featured in PBS Special Oprah’s Roots and “Roots” a 60 Minute Report by Leslie Stahl (2007)

Roger D. Kornberg, Ph.D.
Stanford University School of Medicine
Professor, Structural Biology
Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 2006

Mathilde Krim, Ph.D.
Founding Chairman
amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research
Presidential Medal of Freedom Award (Presented by William J. Clinton) 2000

Marc Lalande, Ph.D.
University of Connecticut Health Center
Chair, Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology
Director, University of Connecticut Stem Cell Institute
Member of the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering

Robert Lanza, M.D.
Chief Scientific Officer, Advanced Cell Technology
Adjunct Professor, Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
All Star Award for Biotechnology 2006

Allan I. Levey, M.D., Ph.D.
Emory University
Director, Emory Center for Neurodegenerative Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease Center
Professor and Chair of Neurology
Best Doctors in America 2005-present
Team Hope Award-Medical Leadership by the Huntington’s Disease Society of America 2005

Jeanne Loring, Ph.D.
The Scripps Research Institute
Professor and Founding Director
Center for Regenerative Medicine
Regulatory and Ethics Board for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Global Challenge
Scientific Advisory Council of the Alzheimer’s Association

David C. Magnus, Ph.D.
Stanford University School of Medicine
Director, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics
Vice President (and President Elect) of the Association of Bioethics Program Directors
Co-Editor of the American Journal of Bioethics

Jeff McCaffrey
Founder, UMKC Chapter of Student Society for Stem Cell Research
National Student Advocacy Award 2007
Spirit of Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) Award 2004

“In the fall of 2002, I was a college freshman, playing football at the U.S. Air Force
Academy. A cadet, my aspirations were to graduate and serve as a commissioned
officer. I had every intention of leading a life of leadership and responsibility. Just
before Thanksgiving that year, while on a weekend trip to the mountains with some
buddies, I suffered a spinal cord injury in a car accident. I have been paralyzed ever

Craig C. Mello, Ph.D.
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Marsel Mesulam, M.D.
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Ruth and Evelyn Dunbar Professor of Neurology, Psychiatry and Psychology
Director, The Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer’s Disease Center
Former Vice President, American Association of Neurology

Randall T. Moon, Ph.D.
University of Washington School of Medicine
Director and William and Marilyn Conner Professor of the Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Pharmacology

Robert M. Nerem, Ph.D.
Director, Georgia Tech/Emory University Center for Regenerative Medicine
Member of National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine
Senior Advisor for Bioengineering at the NIH (2003-2006)

Bonna W. Neuhauser *, RN
“Responding to the scriptural call to heal…”
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (1963-2005)

Mark J. Neuhauser +, J.D.
Attorney at Law

Douglas D. Osheroff, Ph.D.
Stanford University
Nobel Laureate in Physics 1996
MacArthur Prize Fellow 1981

Arnall Patz, M.D.
John Hopkins University & Walter Reed Army Medical Center
Albert Lasker Medical Research Award (Presented by Helen Keller)
The Helen Keller Prize for Vision Research 1994
Presidential Medal of Freedom Award (Presented by George W. Bush) 2004
Laureate Recognition Award from the American Academy of Ophthalmology 2005

Renee A. Reijo Pera, Ph.D.
Stanford University School of Medicine
Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
Director Center for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research and Education
Director Reproductive Biology and Stem Cell Program
Noted as one of Twenty Influential Women in the USA (Newsweek, 2006)

Mahendra S. Rao, M.D., Ph.D.
Vice President of Stem Cell Research at Life Technologies Corporation
International Society for Stem Cell Research Task Force on Clinical Translation of Stem Cells
NIH Stem Cell Committee (1999)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Stem Cell Advisory Committee (2000)
Stem Cell Section Chief, NIH-National Institute on Aging (2001-2005)

Camillo Ricordi, M.D.
University of Miami
Distinguished Professor of Medicine
Scientific Director, Diabetes Research Institute and Cell Transplant Center
Nessim Habif World Prize of Surgery 2001 “The Ricordi Method”
Outstanding Scientific (‘Lilly’) Achievement Award by the American Diabetes Association 2002

Sir Richard Roberts, Ph.D., F.R.S.
New England Biolabs
Chief Scientific Officer
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1993

Lewis P. Rowland, M.D.
Columbia University Medical Center (Neurological Institute)
President, Parkinson’s Disease Foundation
Founder of the Eleanor and Lou Gehrig MDA/ALS Center (Former Co-Director)
Muscular Dystrophy Association Directors’ Award 2009
The Forbes Norris Award for Outstanding Research (ALS) 2001

Janet D. Rowley, M.D.
University of Chicago
Gruber Genetics Prize 2009
Presidential Medal of Freedom Award (Presented by Barack H. Obama) 2009
Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award 1998

Randy Schekman, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
Editor-in-Chief, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research 2002

James Shepherd
Chairman, Shepherd Center, Inc.
U.S. News & World Report-Top 10 Rehabilitation Hospitals in the Nation
“Seeing Beyond Injury”

M. Celeste Simon, Ph.D.
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Professor, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
Scientific Director and Investigator, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute
Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Cancer Foundation Young Investigator Award 1993

Tanya Simuni, M.D.
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Medical Director, Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center
Associate Professor of Neurology

Jonathan M.W. Slack, Ph.D., F.Med.Sci.
University of Minnesota
Director, Stem Cell Institute
Waddington Medal (British Society for Developmental Biology) 2002

Hamilton O. Smith, M.D.
J. Craig Venter Institute
Scientific Director of the Synthetic Biology Group
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Oliver Smithies, D.Phil.
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Excellence Professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Evan Y. Snyder, M.D., Ph.D., F.A.A.P
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
Director, Program in Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine
Director, Stem Cell Research Center
Scientific Steering Committee, San Diego Consortium for Regenerative Medicine

Gary S. Stein, Ph.D.
University of Massachusetts Medical School
The Gerald L. Haidak, M.D. and Zelda S. Haidak
Distinguished Professor and Chair of Cell Biology
Director, International Stem Cell Registry
Deputy Director, UMass Memorial Cancer Center
Interim Director, Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine

Lawrence Steinman, M.D.
Stanford University
George A. Zimmerman Professor of Neurology and Neurological Sciences
Chair, Interdepartmental Program in Immunology
National MS Society/AAN John M. Dystel Prize for Multiple Sclerosis Research (2004)
Senator Jacob Javits Award, US Congress (1988-2002)

Ralph Steinman, M.D.
Rockefeller University
Henry G. Kunkel Professor and Senior Physician
Laboratory of Cellular Physiology and Immunology
Gairdner Foundation International Award 2003
Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research 2007

Bruce Stillman, Ph.D., F.R.S.
President, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Alfred P. Sloan Prize for Cancer Research 2004

Keith E. Tansey, M.D., Ph.D.
Emory University and Atlanta VA Medical Center
Director, Spinal Cord Injury Research, Shepherd Center Inc.
Board, American Spinal Injury Association

Doris A. Taylor, Ph.D.
University of Minnesota
Medtronic Bakken Chair
Director, Center for Cardiovascular Repair
Finalist for TIME Magazine’s Most Influential People of 2009

Steven L. Teitelbaum, M.D.
Washington University in St. Louis-School of Medicine
Wilma and Rosewell Messing Professor
Department of Pathology and Immunology
Former President, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

E. Donnall Thomas, M.D.
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1990
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by George H.W. Bush in Biological Sciences) 1990

Robert Tjian, Ph.D.
University of California, Berkeley
President, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
California Scientist of the Year 1994
Alfred P. Sloan Prize for Cancer Research 1999
Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University 1999

Andrew A. Toledo, M.D.
Medical Director, Reproductive Biology Associates
In Vitro Fertilization Physician
Reproductive Endocrinologist
RESOLVE 2009 Hope Award for Advocacy

J. Craig Venter, Ph.D.
Founder and President of the J. Craig Venter Institute
National Medal of Science Award (Bestowed by Barack H. Obama in Biological Sciences) 2009
Time Magazine’s 2007 and 2008 List of the Most Influential People in the World
The 10 Most Influential People in Science by Discover Magazine 2008

John E. Wagner, M.D.
University of Minnesota
Division Director, Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, Blood and Marrow
Transplantation Program
Scientific Director, Clinical Research of the Stem Cell Institute
Invited Speaker on the Clinical Applications of Stem Cells at the United Nations 2004

Nancy S. Wexler, Ph.D.
Columbia University
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry
President of the Hereditary Disease Foundation
Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life Science 2007
Albert Lasker Public Service Award 1993

Torsten N. Wiesel, M.D.
Rockefeller University
Rockefeller University President Emeritus
President, Rockefeller University (1992-1998)
Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 1981
National Medal of Science (Bestowed by George W. Bush in Biological Sciences) 2005
Helen Keller Prize for Vision Research 1996

Robert W. Wilson, Ph.D.
Harvard University
Nobel Laureate in Physics 1978
Henry Draper Medal 1977 by the National Academy of Sciences

Christopher V.E. Wright, D. Phil.
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Director of the Program in Developmental Biology
Endowed Chair in Molecular Diabetes Research

Ren-He Xu, M.D., Ph.D.
University of Connecticut Health Center
Director, University of Connecticut Stem Cell Core
Outstanding Science Achievement Award from the NCI-Frederick, NIH

Charles Yanofsky, Ph.D.
Stanford University
Department of Biological Sciences
Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University 1976
The National Medal of Science (Bestowed by George W. Bush in Biological Sciences) 2003

+ Corresponding Author
* Corresponding Contributor

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